Contents

VOLUME ONE

Foreword ... viii
John Rourke
Preface ... x
William Liltved
Editor's note ... xiv
Eleanor-Mary Cadell

Explanatory notes ... xiv

Introduction ... 1
The Cape Floristic Region ... 1
The Cape flora ... 1
Biomes and vegetation ... 3
The shaping of the physical landscape ... 10
Fossil plants and past climates ... 12
John Pether
The orchid flora ... 14
The conservation of orchids and their habitats ... 16
The conservation status of orchids in South Africa ... 22
Domatilla Raimindo and Lize von Staden

Chapter one

History of botanical exploration ... 25
The Dutch period (1652–1771) ... 25
The Swedish period (1750–1800) ... 27
The Lindley era (1830–1850) ... 36
The Bolus era (1874–1911) ... 36
The late twentieth century ... 37

Chapter two

Harry Bolus (1834–1911)—his life and botanical works ... 41
Hilary Cochrane

Chapter three

Morphology of orchids ... 51
Hubert Kurzweil, William Liltved and Trevor Edwards
1. Growth habits ... 51
2. Underground organs / stems ... 51
3. Leaves ... 52
4. Inflorescences ... 53
5. Flower and seed structure ... 53
6. Colour mutations and other floral anomalies ... 65

Chapter four

Orchids and fire ... 69

Chapter five

Pollination and natural hybridisation ... 75
1. Pollination by butterflies ... 77
2. Pollination by moths ... 79
3. Pollination by flies ... 82
4. Pollination by bees (excluding Melittidae) ... 88
5. Pollination by oil-collecting bees(Rediviva: Melittidae) ... 91
    Anton Pauw
6. Pollination by beetles ... 100
7. Pollination by birds ... 101
8. Deception and mimicry ... 102
9. Self-pollination ... 105
10. Natural hybridisation ... 108

Chapter six

Cultivation and artificial hybridisation ... 113
Trevor Edwards
Terrestrial species ... 113
Epiphytic species ... 125

Chapter seven

The terrestrials ... 129
Brachycorythis ... 130
Bartholina ... 133
Holothrix ... 145
Habenaria ... 188
Bonatea ... 197
Stenoglottis ... 205
Disperis ... 208
Kim Steiner and William Liltved
Brownleea ... 249
Pachites ... 252
The Coryciinae ... 260
Kim Steiner and William Liltved
Ceratandra ... 262
Evotella ... 280
Pterygodium ... 285
Corycium ... 330
Satyrium ... 366

VOLUME TWO

Disa ... 486
Liparis ... 834
Eulophia ... 840
Acrolophia ... 868
Calanthe ... 893

Chapter eight

The epiphytes ... 897
Polystachya ... 898
Angraecum ... 903
Cyrtorchis ... 911
Mystacidium ... 915
Tridactyle ... 919

Appendix A: gallery of additional recent Cape orchid photographs
Appendix B: references to Cape orchids in Bolus’s published works

Glossary of botanical terms
The authors
The contributors
Acknowledgements
Photographic credits
Bibliography
Index